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Showing posts with label Jaber bin Hayan (Geber) Islamic Movie. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Jaber bin Hayan (Geber) Islamic Movie. Show all posts

Tuesday, 23 October 2012

Jabir ibn Hayyan 14 End Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

His acclaimed treatise on optics, namely "Kitab al-Manazir" was translated into Latin under the title "Opticae Thesaurus Alhazeni" in 1270 by Witelo. Afterwards, it was published by Frederick Risner at Basel in 1572. According to Ibn al-Haytham, "It is not a ray leaving the eyes that causes sight! It is far more the form of the perceived object that radiates onto the eye and is converted by its transparent body."
Jafar Sadik further recommended for an invention of an instrument to watch an object of a remote distance 50 times nearer. Hence, the European scientist, Roger Bacon (1220-1292) had also proposed for such instrument, bringing an object 50 times near to our sight. Later on, the Italian scientist Gailileo (1564-1642) was destined to invent the suggestive instrument, that is, telescope in 1610; whose functions absolutely based on the theory of Jafar Sadik, bringing an object visible 50 times closer to its actual distance.
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09:26 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 12 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

When the Greek science had been translated (between 133/750 and 287/900) in the Arabian peninsula in the time of Jafar Sadik, the Arabian astrologers accepted the theory of six planets by adding zuhul (Saturn) in their study. Thus, the three planets below the sphere of the sun were known as "the lower planets" (al-kawakib al-sufliyah) viz. Venus (zuhrah), Mercury (utarid) and the Moon (qamar). While the other three planets beyond the sphere of the sun were called "the high planets" (al-kawakib al-ulwiyah) viz. Saturn (zuhul), Jupiter (mushtari) and Mars (marikh). The credit therefore, for reporting the existence of Pluto for the first time goes to Jafar Sadik when the instrument observing the heavenly bodies was not then invented.
There is also another astronomical discovery by Jafar Sadik, who once asked a Syrian astrologer, "How much is the light of sukainah less than that of Venus (zuhrah)?" The astrologer said, "I swear upon God that I never heard until today even the name of this planet." This tradition most unambiguously indicates the very existence of one another planet which was also unknown then, but it had been discovered with the help of telescope by the English astronomer, William Herschel in 1781, known as Uranus. The Arabic word sukainah is derived from sukun means "rest", and how appropriate a name it is for Uranus, which would appear from the slow and restful way in which it completes its revolution round the sun, and as a result it is called a "fainter planet". Jafar Sadik spoke in the same breath of two such different planets as Venus and Uranus, the former being bright and rapid, and the latter a very faint, slow moving orb.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 13 (An Islamic Scientist) 

Jabir ibn Hayyan 14 (An Islamic Scientist)

09:25 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 13 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

Jafar Sadik is said to have propounded few other important scientific theories in his discourses. For instance, he once said: "The visual rays of an object enter in our eyes, whose only one part flashes in our eyes, resulting our unability to perceive an object so easy which is far from us. The rays of an object lying at a distance can be totally entered in our eyes and we can see it very closely, provided an instrument is invented, through which the rays of a farthest object can enter in the eyes, and then the camels in the desert, grazing at a distance of 3000 yards, will be seen at a distance of 60 yards. It means that the grazing camels will be seen 50 times nearer." This is perhaps the first correction of the theories of "sight rays" as expounded by Euclid (330-226 B.C.) and Ptolemy (9-168 A.D.), which were supposed to radiate out of eyes onto object. Later on, the theory of Jafar Sadik had been accepted after many experiments by the renowned scientist of Fatimids period, called Ibn al-Haytham (354-429/965-1039), known as Alhazen.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 15 (An Islamic Scientist)

09:25 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 11 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

One of the renowned titles of Jafar Sadik was kashiful haqaiq means "one who reveals mysteries", and also muhaqiq means "researcher." The reason for investing him such titles was that he had disclosed many wonderful scientific theories then unknown to the Arab world. For instance, it is related that once Jafar Sadik said: "God has created a planet with cold water on the seventh heaven, and other six planets have been created with hot water." This is an explicit discovery of a planet, called Pluto. Clyde Tombaugh however discovered it photographically on January 21, 1930 at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona. The word seventh heaven signifies the most distant planet in the solar system, as its distance is 3.67 billion miles (5.9 billion km.) from the sun. Being remote in distance, the rays of the sun reach very mild, resulting the temperature as low as 360 degree F (or -218 degree C), and thus it remains frozen. On account of its coldness, Jafar Sadik expounded the creation of Pluto with cold water. He was therefore the first to report the very existence of Pluto.In Arabic astronomy, kawakib is the general term for the luminous heavenly bodies, and thus the word al-kawakib al-sayyarah means "the planets as opposed the stars" or it is known as al-kawakib al-thabitah. Only five planets (kawakib) were known to the Arabs in pre-Islamic period, known as al-kawakib al-khamsa or al-mutahayyira.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 11 (An Islamic Scientist)

Jabir ibn Hayyan 12 (An Islamic Scientist)

09:24 - By M. Amir 0

Monday, 22 October 2012

Jabir ibn Hayyan 10 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

And Jafar Sadik was a scientist besides. We cannot but invite attention to a fact that Jabir bin Hayyan (103/721-200/815), known as Geber, the father of modern chemistry, worked with the materials gathered by Jafar Sadik in Medina, who referred to his Lord in his writings as "My Master" and "A mine of wisdom." The intellectuals in Renaissance in Europe greatly took benefits from the treatises of Jabir bin Hayyan, and these were translated into Latin, German, French and English. He is world-famed as the father of Arabic Alchemy. The word al-kimiya is usually said to be derived from the Egyptian kam-it or kem-it (the black), or some have thought, from the Greek chyma (molten metal).
According to "The Cultural Atlas of Islam" (New York, 1986, p. 328) by Ismail al-Faruqi and Lois al-Faruqi that, "In response to Jafar al-Sadik's wishes, he invented a kind of paper that resisted fire, and an ink that could be read at night. He invented an additive which, when applied to an iron surface, inhabited rust and when applied to a textile, would make it water repellent." Jabir bin Hayyan defined chemical combination as union of the elements together in small particles too small for the naked eyes to see without loss of their character, as John Dalton (1766-1844), the English chemist and physicist was to discover ten centuries later. He was however first to describe the processes of calcination and reduction, improved the methods of evaporation, sublimation, melting and crystallisation; prepared acetic acid, sulphric acid, nitric acid and the mixture of the last two, in which gold and silver could be dissolved; discovered several chemical compounds, and separated antimony and arsenic from the sulphides.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 10 (An Islamic Scientist) 

12:45 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 9 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

He, additionally, has written papers on mirrors. He wrote The Book of Seventy, which is composed of seventy articles about his most important experiments in chemistry and the conclusions that he reached. It is considered the best of what the Arabs reached in their time.
Furthermore, Jabir has a book on alchemy that he named Mercy. In this book he discusses the possibility of converting metals to gold. He also wrote other books called The Twenty Sentences, The Secrets of Chemistry, The Basis of Chemistry. He had works in mathematics, philosophy and poetry as well. Some of his books were translated to Latin, such as The Book of Seventy and The Book of Mercy, and there are books by him in Latin, that could not be found in the original Arabic version like the books of The Search for Perfection and, The Covenant and The Furnace.
Jabir's books were translated to Latin, and they remained the best reference in the field of chemistry for around a thousand years. His works were studied by famous Western scientists such as, Coup, Bartholiet, Krauss, and Halymard who was fair in his assessment of Jabir and who and put him on the top, thereby eliminating all doubts that were directed at him by unfair or biased scientists. Also, Sarton who enriched a period of time with the history of the Islamic civilization, writes, ''Jabir did not know that the books he wrote could never be perceived to be written by a man who lived in the second Hijri century, because of the vast number of books and because of the abundance of information included in them.''
This is how Muslim scientists were and this is what their creations were like. We ask Allah SWT to give back to our nation its glory and pioneering through the efforts and hard work of its sons and daughters, who follow the footsteps of their ancestors.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 9 (An Islamic Scientist)

12:40 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 8 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

G. Lebon says in his compilations ''A scientific encyclopedia is made from the works of Jabir, this encyclopedia contains the best of what the Arabic scientist achieved in his times. His books contained the description of chemical compounds that were completely unknown before him.''
Jabir had so many works that influenced the West, and they copied from these works. Ibn al-Nadeem said that he had 306 books in chemistry all over the world written in his special style, and although most of them were lost, still eighty of these books are preserved in libraries in the East and West. Robert Alshestry (539 A.H- 1144 A.C), Girard Alcremony (583 A.H-1187 A.C) and others translated most of his books into Latin in the twelfth century. His translated works represent the base from which the modern science of chemistry was launched to the entire world.
The book of Poisons and Preventing Their Damages is the most famous work of Jabir and it is composed of five chapters. He divided poisons in it into animal, plant and rock poisons. He also mentioned the antidotes to these poisons and their reactions in the body. This book is considered a link between chemistry and medicine.
One of his most famous books as well is The Big Book of Properties and its original version exists in the British museum.
He wrote also the book of Measures and it means the work that is dependent upon experiment, the book of Weights, and the book of Iron in which he describes the process of retrieving iron steel from its prime resources, and describes how to make steel by melting in special bowels. He also wrote a book named The End of Perfection and it is an amazing book in chemistry. He also wrote a paper on ovens.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 8 (An Islamic Scientist)

12:26 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 7 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

He was the first to notice the precipitates of silver chloride upon adding table salt to silver nitrate. He also used alum to make dyes on cloth permanent. He prepared certain substances that can waterproof clothes; these substances are aluminum salts that are derived from organic salts that contain hydrocarbon molecules. He concluded that fire adds a blue color to copper, while copper adds a green color to fire. He was the first to separate gold from silver using an acid, and he explained in detail the method of preparing arsenic, purifying metals and dying cloth.
He was the first to use the sensitive balance and the extremely accurate weights in his laboratory experiments; he weighed amounts that are less than 1/100 pounds. He was the one who prepared potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate, alkaline lead and antimony. He also used manganese dioxide to remove colors in the glass industry. He also crystallized the theory that states that a chemical reaction is achieved by a combination between the atoms of the reacting elements, and he gave as an example for that mercury and sulpher, when they unite to form a new substance. He used to carry out most of his experiments in a special laboratory that was discovered in the ruins of the city of Al-Kufa at the end of the twelfth Hijri century (the eighteenth century A.C.)
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 7 (An Islamic Scientist)

12:18 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 6 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

Halymyard was very interested in Jabir's works, his scientific method and his books. He was keen on showing the scientific value of his work, and he said later that ''the special thing about Jabir was that he showed and insisted upon the importance of experiment much more than all the alchemists who came before him''
Jabir Ibn Hayan…Priorities and Achievements:
Jabir conducted so many laboratory experiments, some of which were already known before his time and some of which were new experiments. Among the methods that he used were evaporation, distillation, crystallization, sublimation, filtration, melting, condensation, and dissolution. He studied the properties of some elements accurately and thus discovered the complex silver ammonium ion.
He prepared many chemical substances, he was the first to prepare sulfuric acid from alum by distillation, he also prepared mercury oxide, nitric acid, which is known as silver water and he used to call it hydrolyzing water or water of fire. He also prepared hydrochloric acid, which is called the spirit of salt. He was the first to discover caustic soda, as well as the first to retrieve silver nitrate, which he called the rock of hell. He also prepared mercury chloride (Al Sulaymany), nitrohydrochloric acid (the royal water) which was named thus because it could dissolve gold, the king of metals.
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08:25 - By M. Amir 0

Saturday, 20 October 2012

Jabir ibn Hayyan 5 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

Jabir's works that depended on laboratory experiments were the most important serious trials in studying nature in an accurate scientific way. He was the first to introduce the laboratory experimental method, and the procedures he pursued in his researches are almost identical to those followed today. His procedures can be summarized in three steps:
The first: the chemist has to set an assumption through his observations so as to explain the phenomenon he wants to explain.
The second: to deduce conclustions based theoretically on his assumptions.
The third: to take these conclusions back to nature and see whether it will support his new findings or not. If they proved to be true, the hypothesis changes into a scientific law that can be relied upon in detecting how nature will react under certain circumstances.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 5 (An Islamic Scientist)

12:29 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 4 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

Jabir used to say about this experimental method that ''the condition for perfecting this craft, is work and experiment. He who does not work or experiment will achieve nothing.''
Also, in the first article in the great book of properties he says: ''In this book we mention the properties of what we have seen after experiments and tests regardless of what we have heard or read. And thus we mentioned what proved to be right and we refused what proved to be wrong and we also compared what we discovered to what people mentioned''
And thus Jabir is considered to be the first to introduce scientific laboratory experiments in the scientific research method that he established. He sometimes called experimenting ''training''. He used to say that ''he who is well-trained is a real scientist, and he who is not well-trained is not a real scientist; you better train well in all crafts, a well-trained craftsman excels and he who is not well-trained fails''
And thus, Jabir made a bigger step than the Greeks, by introducing experiment as a basis for work and not only static meditation.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 4 (An Islamic Scientist)

12:24 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 3 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

Chemistry started—as we mentioned in the first article on chemistry—as a superstitious science that depended on old legends. The idea of turning cheap metals into valuable ones controlled the scene because scientists who came before Islam believed that metals such as gold, silver, copper, iron, lead and tin are from the same type, and only differ due to the effect of heat, cold, dryness or humidity on it. These are all changeable attributes according to the theory of the four elements (fire, air, water and earth) and thus these elements can be changed into one another with the aid of a third element, elixir. Based on this view, some scientists from the civilizations that preceded the Islamic civilization imagined that they could invent the elixir of life or the stone of wisdom that can remove the deficiencies of life and prolong life, and this was known as the science of alchemy.
Some of the early Arab and Muslim scientists like Jabir Ibn Hayan and Abu Bakr Al-Razi were influenced by the theory of the four elements that the Arab and Muslim scientists inherited from the Greek. However they studied it accurately and this led them to discovering the scientific experimental method and applying it in the field of experimental sciences.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 3 (An Islamic Scientist)

12:16 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 2 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

Jabir is considered the founder of experimental chemistry. He was the first to acquire his information from experiments, observation and scientific conclusion. He had so many discoveries and works to the extent that chemistry was attached to his name, they used to say ''the chemistry of Jabir'' and ''chemistry is for Jabir'', and also '' Jabir's craft''. He was also named '' the master of chemists'' and '' the father of chemistry.''
Before Jabir, there were merely several primitive old jobs, that mingled with many crafts like embalming (in ancient Egypt), leather tanning, dying, mining and oil purification. But Jabir Ibn Hayan managed to develop chemistry and elevate it from this lowly rank into a high science, by adding so much theoretical, practical and scientific knowledge and by setting the basis and rules for preparing and dealing with chemical substances, thus he is considered the master of chemists without any counterpart.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 2 (An Islamic Scientist)

12:10 - By M. Amir 1

Jabir ibn Hayyan 1 Urdu (The Founder Of Chemistry Science)

Ibn-Khaldun described him in his book when he came to talk about chemistry and said, ''The pioneer in chemistry was Jabir Ibn-Hayan, they even attribute the science to him and say ‘the science of Jabir’, and he wrote seventy books on chemistry''
He is Abu-Musa Jabir Ibn-Hayan Ibn-Abdullah Al-Azdy, from the Yemeni tribe of Azd. Some of the people of this tribe migrated to Al-Kufa after the collapse of the dam of Ma'areb. He was born in Tus and settled in Baghdad after the establishment of the Abbassid caliphate. His relation was tightened with the Persian family of Al-Baramekah and his life extended from 103-200 Hijri/ 721-815 AC.
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Jabir ibn Hayyan 1 (An Islamic Scientist)

09:40 - By M. Amir 0

Tuesday, 6 September 2011

Jabir ibn Hayyan 16 End (An Islamic Scientist)

The historian of chemistry Erick John Holmyard gives credit to Jābir for developing alchemy into an experimental science and he writes that Jābir's importance to the history of chemistry is equal to that of Robert Boyle and Antoine Lavoisier. The historian Paul Kraus, who had studied most of Jābir's extant works in Arabic and Latin, summarized the importance of Jābir to the history of chemistry by comparing his experimental and systematic works in chemistry with that of the allegorical and unintelligible works of the ancient Greek alchemists. The word gibberish is theorized to be derived from the Latinised version off Jābir's name, in reference to the incomprehensible technical jargon often used by alchemists, the most famous of whom was Jābir. Other sources such as the Oxford English Dictionary suggest the term stems from gibber; however, the first known recorded use of the term "gibberish" was before the first known recorded use of the word "gibber" (see Gibberish).


08:15 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 15 (An Islamic Scientist)

Whether there was a real Jabir in the 8th century or not, his name would become the most famous in alchemy. He paved the way for most of the later alchemists, including al-Kindi, al-Razi, al-Tughrai and al-Iraqi, who lived in the 9th-13th centuries. His books strongly influenced the medieval European alchemists and justified their search for the philosopher's stone. In the Middle Ages, Jabir's treatises on alchemy were translated into Latin and became standard texts for European alchemists. These include the Kitab al-Kimya (titled Book of the Composition of Alchemy in Europe), translated by Robert of Chester (1144); and the Kitab al-Sab'een (Book of Seventy) by Gerard of Cremona (before 1187). Marcelin Berthelot translated some of his books under the fanciful titles Book of the Kingdom, Book of the Balances, and Book of Eastern Mercury. Several technical Arabic terms introduced by Jabir, such as alkali, have found their way into various European languages and have become part of scientific vocabulary. Max Meyerhoff states the following on Jabir ibn Hayyan: "His influence may be traced throughout the whole historic course of European alchemy and chemistry."

08:12 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 14 (An Islamic Scientist)

Jābir's interest in alchemy was probably inspired by his teacher Ja'far al-Sadiq. Ibn Hayyan was deeply religious, and repeatedly emphasizes in his works that alchemy is possible only by subjugating oneself completely to the will of Allah and becoming a literal instrument of Allah on Earth, since the manipulation of reality is possible only for Allah. The Book of Stones prescribes long and elaborate sequences of specific prayers that must be performed without error alone in the desert before one can even consider alchemical experimentation.[citation needed] Jābir professes to draw his inspiration from earlier writers, Legendary and historic, on the subject. In his writings, Jābir pays tribute to Egyptian and Greek alchemists Zosimos, Democritus, Hermes Trismegistus, Agathodaimon, but also Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Pythagoras, and Socrates as well as the commentators Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius, Porphyry and others. A huge pseudo-epigraphic literature of alchemical books was composed in Arabic, among which the names of Persian authors also appear like Jāmāsb, Ostanes, Mani, testifying that alchemy-like operations on metals and other substances were also practiced in Persia. The great number of Persian technical names (zaybaq = mercury, nošāder = sal-ammoniac) also corroborates the idea of an important Iranian roots of medieval alchemy. Ibn al-Nadim reports a dialogue between Aristotle and Ostanes, the Persian alchemist of Achaemenid era, which is in Jabirian corpus under the title of Kitab Musahhaha Aristutalis. Ruska had suggested that the Sasanian medical schools played an important role in the spread of interest in alchemy. He emphasizes the long history of alchemy, "whose origin is Arius ... the first man who applied the first experiment on the [philosopher's] stone... and he declares that man possesses the ability to imitate the workings of Nature" (Nasr, Seyyed Hussein, Science and Civilization of Islam).


08:09 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 13 (An Islamic Scientist)

According to Jabir's mercury-sulfur theory, metals differ from each in so far as they contain different proportions of the sulfur and mercury. These are not the elements that we know by those names, but certain principles to which those elements are the closest approximation in nature. Based on Aristotle's "exhalation" theory the dry and moist exhalations become sulfur and mercury (sometimes called "sophic" or "philosophic" mercury and sulfur). The sulfur-mercury theory is first recorded in a 7th century work Secret of Creation credited (falsely) to Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana). This view becomes wide spread. In the Book of Explanation Jabir says the metals are all, in essence, composed of mercury combined and coagulated with sulphur [that has risen to it in earthy, smoke-like vapors]. They differ from one another only because of the difference of their accidental qualities, and this difference is due to the difference of their sulphur, which again is caused by a variation in the soils and in their positions with respect to the heat of the sun Holmyard says that Jabir proves by experiment that these are not ordinary sulfur and mercury The seeds of the modern classification of elements into metals and non-metals could be seen in his chemical nomenclature. He proposed three categories: * "Spirits" which vaporise on heating, like arsenic (realgar, orpiment), camphor, mercury, sulfur, sal ammoniac, and ammonium chloride. * "Metals", like gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, iron, and khar-sini * Non-malleable substances, that can be converted into powders, such as stones. The origins of the idea of chemical equivalents might be traced back to Jabir, in whose time it was recognized that "a certain quantity of acid is necessary in order to neutralize a given amount of base."[verification needed] Jābir also made important contributions to medicine, astronomy/astrology, and other sciences. Only a few of his books have been edited and published, and fewer still are available in translation.

08:06 - By M. Amir 0

Jabir ibn Hayyan 12 (An Islamic Scientist)

Jābir's alchemical investigations ostensibly revolved around the ultimate goal of takwin — the artificial creation of life. The Book of Stones includes several recipes for creating creatures such as scorpions, snakes, and even humans in a laboratory environment, which are subject to the control of their creator. What Jābir meant by these recipes is unknown. Jābir's alchemical investigations were theoretically grounded in an elaborate numerology related to Pythagorean and Neoplatonic systems. The nature and properties of elements was defined through numeric values assigned the Arabic consonants present in their name, ultimately culminating in the number 17. By Jabirs' time Aristotelian physics, had become Neoplatonic. Each Aristotelian element was composed of these qualities: fire was both hot and dry, earth, cold and dry, water cold and moist, and air, hot and moist. This came from the elementary qualities which are theoretical in nature plus substance. In metals two of these qualities were interior and two were exterior. For example, lead was cold and dry and gold was hot and moist. Thus, Jābir theorized, by rearranging the qualities of one metal, a different metal would result. Like Zosimos, Jabir believed this would require a catalyst, an al-iksir, the elusive elixir that would make this transformation possible — which in European alchemy became known as the philosopher's stone

08:03 - By M. Amir 0

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